Classification of Opiliones

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Info

Definition: Harvestmen are members of the class Arachnida, order Opiliones.

Relationships: Opiliones are more closely related to scorpions than to spiders (following Shultz, 1990, but there are different interpretations in that Scorpiones do not even make part of the Arachnida).

Diversity: This group constitutes the fourth largest order of the arachnids (following Araneae, Acari, Pseudoscorpiones), with almost 6500 described species.

Distribution: They are one of the more widely distributed groups of organisms; occurring in most terrestrial habitats and on all continents except Antarctica proper. They are much vulnerable to human destructive action on our planet and many species are endangered by the quick deforestation of Earth.

Who are they?

Laniatores: these are the stout, spiny harvestmen found in the Tropics, which may reach very large size.
Dyspnoi: these are Temperate Old World species, dull-colored and short-legged. Some species may have bizarre ocular ornamentation.
Eupnoi: these are the daddy-longlegs, familiar to Europeans and Americans. They have coriaceous tegument, delicate pedipalps, legs often very thin and long. There is a a myriad of tropical species (Gagrellinae), which may have mettalic shines, intricate honeycomb patterns of granulation, and striped/dotted multicolored hues of blue, red, green, yellow.
Cyphs: these are the minute acari-like Opiliones which were undersampled until the last decades, when intensive studies made them much better known.

Acknowledgements: warm thanks are due to all colleagues who contributed with pictures and assorted info. Gonzalo Giribet provided supplements, corrections and updates to the iconography.


You may cite this page as:

Kury, A.B. (2000 onwards) Classification of Opiliones. Museu Nacional/UFRJ website. Online at: http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/opiliones.html


Worldwide Opiliones species count in February 2013 is...
Suborder Superfamily/Infraorder Number of species
Cyphophthalmi - 190 Incertae sedis
3
Sternophthalmi
38
Scopulophthalmi
61
Boreophthalmi
89
Eupnoi - 1807 Caddoidea
24
Phalangioidea
1783
Dyspnoi - 375 Ischyropsalidoidea
95
Troguloidea
280
Laniatores - 4167 Travunioidea
77
Triaenonychoidea
491
Grassatores incertae sedis
88
Assamioidea
529
Epedanoidea
419
Gonyleptoidea
1967
Phalangodoidea
117
Samooidea
214
Zalmoxoidea
265
OPILIONES TOTAL --
6539

Bibliography

A bibliography of Opiliones systematics is the OmniPaper project developed by the Arachno-Lab of the National Museum, Rio. Besides the list of publications and short biographies of the systematists, it has some pdfs of papers. 

Systematics

Below a synoptic classification of the order Opiliones is given down to family-group level.

Order Opiliones Sundevall 1833

SUBORDER Cyphophthalmi Simon 1879
Scopulophthalmi Giribet et al., 2012

Pettalidae Shear 1980

(Australasian, Afrotropical, Indomalayan, Neotropical – 61 species)

 

Pettalus thwaitesi Sharma et al. 2009 - Sri Lanka - from Sarah L. Boyer website

Copyright © Gonzalo Giribet

Sternophthalmi Giribet et al., 2012

Troglosironidae Shear 1993

(Australasian – 13 species)

Troglosiro longifossa Sharma & Giribet, 2005 - New Caledonia - from Cyphophthalmi checklist

Copyright © Gonzalo Giribet

Neogoveidae Shear 1980

(Neotropical, Afrotropical, Nearctic – 22 species)

Metasiro americanus (Davis, 1933) - USA - from Cyphophthalmi checklist

Copyright © Gonzalo Giribet

Ogoveidae Shear 1980

(Afrotropical – 3 species)

Ogovea cameroonensis Giribet & Prieto, 2003 - Cameroon - original.

Copyright © Gonzalo Giribet

Boreophthalmi Giribet et al., 2012

Sironidae Simon 1879

(Palearctic, Nearctic – 52 species)

Siro boyerae Giribet & Shear, 2010 - USA (thanks to Giribet for ID) - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Stylocellidae Hansen & Sørensen 1904

(Indomalayan – 36 species)

Leptopsalis sp. (thanks to Giribet for tentative ID)- Singapore - from flickr

Copyright © [wj]



SUBORDER Eupnoi Hansen & Sørensen 1904
Caddoidea Banks 1893 Caddidae Banks 1893

Caddinae Banks 1893

(Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical – 11 species)

Caddo agilis Banks, 1892 - Canada - from Bug Guide

Copyright © 2011 Stephen Luk

Phalangioidea Latreille 1802

†Kustarachnidae Petrunkevitch, 1949

(Nearctic – 1 fossil species)

Kustarachne tenuipes Scudder, 1890 - Upper Carboniferous, USA - from Dunlop, 2007

Copyright © Harvard University Press.

Neopilionidae Lawrence 1931

Ballarrinae Hunt & Cokendolpher 1991

(Australasian, Neotropical, Afrotropical – 10 species)

Ballarra drosera Hunt & Cokendolpher, 1991 - Australia - from Hunt & Cokendolpher, 1991

Copyright © The Australian Museum, Sidney

Enantiobuninae Mello-Leitão 1931

(Australasian, Neotropical – 52 species)

Forsteropsalis nigra (Forster, 1944) - (thanks to Giribet for the ID) - New Zealand - from flickr

Copyright © New Zealand Wild [Steve Reekie]

Neopilioninae Lawrence 1931

(Afrotropical – 2 species)

   

Metopilio Group

(Nearctic, Neotropical – 32 species)

Eurybunus sp. - USA - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Phalangiidae Latreille 1802

"Dicranopalpus group"

(Palearctic, Neotropical – 12 species)

Dicranopalpus ramosus (Simon, 1909) - UK - from flickr

Copyright © Boom-Stick [James Clay]

Oligolophinae Banks 1893

(Palearctic, Nearctic, Indomalayan – 51 species)

Mitopus glacialis (Heer, 1845) - Austria - from Arages

Copyright © Barbara Knoflach

Opilioninae Koch 1839

(Palearctic, Nearctic, Indomalayan – 86 species)

Egaenus convexus (C.L.Koch in Herrich-Schäffer, 1835) - Czech Republic - from BioLib

Copyright © Ondřej Machač

Phalangiinae Latreille 1802

(Palearctic, Afrotropical, Nearctic – 189 species)

Rilaena triangularis (Herbst 1799) - UK - from flickr

Copyright © shane58

Platybuninae Starega 1976 

(Palearctic – 44 species)

Megabunus diadema (Fabricius 1779) - UK - from flickr

Copyright © shane58

Protolophidae Banks, 1893

(Nearctic – 8 species)

Protolophus singularis Banks, 1893 - USA - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Sclerosomatidae Simon 1879

Gagrellinae Thorell 1889

(Indomalayan, Neotropical, Nearctic – 1049 species)

Gen. sp. - Philippines - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Gyinae Šilhavý, 1946

(Palearctic – 12 species)

Gyas titanus Simon, 1879 - Spain - from flickr

Copyright © Óskar87jk Óscar Méndez

Leiobuninae Banks 1893

(Palearctic, Nearctic, Indomalayan, Neotropical – 202 species)

Leiobunum rotundum (Latreille 1798) - UK - from flickr

Copyright © Boom-Stick [James Clay]

Sclerosomatinae Simon 1879

(Palearctic – 34 species)

Homalenotus quadridentatus (Cuvier 1795) - UK - from Spider and Harvestman Recording Scheme website

Copyright © J.P.Richards

         


SUBORDER Dyspnoi Hansen & Sørensen 1904
Acropsopilionoidea Roewer 1923

Acropsopilionidae Roewer 1923

(Australasian, Neotropical, Nearctic – 13 species)

Acropsopilio neozealandiae (Forster, 1948) - New Zealand - from WikiSpecies

Copyright © S.E. Thorpe

Ischyropsalidoidea Simon 1879

Ceratolasmatidae Shear 1986

(Nearctic – 5 species)

Ceratolasma tricantha Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 - cropped - USA - from flickr

Copyright © stevelewalready [Steve Lew]

Ischyropsalididae Simon 1879

(Palearctic – 37 species)

Ischyropsalis hellwigii hellwigii (Panzer, 1794) cropped - Germany - from fotocommunity

Copyright ©

Sabaconidae Dresco 1970

(Palearctic, Nearctic – 53 species)

Sabacon cavicolens (Packard, 1884) - USA - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Troguloidea Sundevall 1833

Dicranolasmatidae Simon 1879

(Palearctic – 18 species)

Dicranolasma scabrum (Herbst 1799) - Serbia - from Nature Photography by Dragiša Savić

Copyright © Dragiša Savić.

Nemastomatidae Simon 1872

Nemastomatinae Simon 1872

(Palearctic – 188 species)

Nemastoma bimaculatum (Fabricius, 1775) cropped - UK - from flickr

Copyright © Jonathan (chirpy) [Jonathan Michaelson]

Ortholasmatinae Shear & Gruber 1983

(Nearctic, Indomalayan – 19 species)

Ortholasma colossus Shear, 2010 - USA - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

†Nemastomoididae Petrunkevitch 1955

(Nearctic, Palearctic, 2 fossil species)

Nemastomoides longipes (Petrunkevitch, 1913) - Upper Carboniferous, USA - from Dunlop, 2007

Copyright © Harvard University Press.

Nipponopsalididae Martens 1976

(Palearctic – 4 species)

Nipponopsalis sp. -Japan - from defunct link

Copyright © unknown

Trogulidae Sundevall 1833

(Palearctic – 51 species)

Trogulus nepaeformis (Scopoli 1763) - Czech Republic - from BioLib

Copyright © Ivo Antušek



SUBORDER Laniatores Thorell, 1876
Travunioidea Absolon & Kratochvil 1932 Nippononychidae Suzuki, 1975    
Paranonychidae Briggs, 1971 Paranonychinae Briggs, 1971

Metanonychus setulus, adult, USA, OR, Curry Co, Brookings. From Harvestmen of North America. Photo copyright © Axel Schönhofer.

Sclerobuninae Dumitrescu, 1976

(Nearctic – 10 species)

Sclerobunus robustus idahoensis Briggs, 1971 - USA - from flickr - cropped

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Travuniidae Absolon & Kratochvil, 1932

Briggsinae Özdikmen & Demir 2008

(Nearctic – 6 species)

Briggsus sp. - USA - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Cladonychiinae Hadzi, 1935

(Palearctic, Nearctic – 18 species)

Cryptomaster leviathan Briggs, 1969 - USA - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Travuniinae Absolon & Kratochvil, 1932    
Triaenonychoidea Sørensen, 1886 Triaenonychidae Sørensen, 1886 Adaeinae Pocock, 1902   Copyright ©
Soerensenellinae Forster, 1954

Soerensenella sp. - New Zealand - original.

Copyright © Gonzalo Giribet.

Synthetonychiinae Forster, 1954

Synthetonychia sp. - New Zealand - original.

Copyright © Gonzalo Giribet.

Triaenobuninae Pocock, 1902    

Triaenonychinae Sørensen, 1886

(Australasian, Afrotropical, Neotropical – 341 species)

Algidia sp. - New Zealand - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Triaenonychidae incertae sedis    
Assamioidea Sørensen, 1884

Assamiidae Sørensen, 1884

(Afrotropical, Indomalayan, Australasian – 484 species)

many ill-defined subfamilies

Gen. sp. - Malaysia - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Pyramidopidae Sharma et al., 2011

(Afrotropical, Australasian – 46 species)

 

Pyramidops sp. - Cameroon - original - cropped

Copyright © Gonzalo Giribet

Epedanoidea Sørensen, 1886

Epedanidae Sørensen, 1886

(Indomalayan, Australasian – 174 species)

a few ill-defined subfamilies

Gen. sp. - Malaysia - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Petrobunidae Sharma & Giribet, 2011

(Indomalayan, Australasian – 5 species)

Petrobunus sp. - Philippines - original - cropped

Copyright © Peter Jäger

Podoctidae Roewer, 1912

Ibaloniinae Roewer, 1912

(Australasian, Indomalayan, Afrotropical, Neotropical – 66 species)

  Copyright ©

Podoctinae Roewer, 1912

(Indomalayan, Afrotropical, Australasian – 62 species)

Gen. sp. - Singapore - from flickr

Copyright © Steven Yoon

Sandokanidae Özdikmen & Kury, 2007

(Indomalayan – 72 species)

Sandokan sp. - Malaysia - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Tithaeidae Sharma & Giribet, 2011

(Indomalayan – 38 species)

Tithaeus sp. - Singapore - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Gonyleptoidea Sundevall, 1833

Agoristenidae Šilhavý, 1973

(Neotropical – 76 species)

Gen. sp. - Puerto Rico - from Father Sanchez's Web Site of West Indian Natural History

Copyright © unknown

Cosmetidae Koch, 1839

Cosmetinae Koch, 1839

(Neotropical, Nearctic – 684 species)

Flirtea sp. - Ecuador - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Discosomaticinae Roewer, 1923 (Neotropical – 34 species)

Sibambea sp. - Ecuador - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Cranaidae Roewer, 1913

(Neotropical – 165 species)

 

Phareicranaus gracilis (Pinto-da-Rocha & Kury, 2003) - Ecuador - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Gonyleptidae Sundevall, 1833

Ampycinae Kury, 2003

(Neotropical – 22 species)

Ampycus telifer (Butler, 1873) - Colombia - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Bourguyiinae Mello-Leitão, 1923

(Neotropical – 10 species)

Bourguyia bocaina Yamaguti & Pinto-da-Rocha, 2009 - Brazil - from Yamaguti & Pinto-da-Rocha, 2009

Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Caelopyginae Sørensen, 1884

(Neotropical – 31 species)

Metarthrodes longipes (B. Soares, 1945) - Brazil - from Laboratory of arthropod behavior and evolution - cropped

Copyright © Glauco Machado

Cobaniinae Kury, 1994

(Neotropical – 2 species)

Cobania picea (Bertkau, 1880) - Brazil - from Laboratory of arthropod behavior and evolution - cropped

Copyright © Glauco Machado

Goniosomatinae Mello-Leitão, 1935

(Neotropical – 38 species)

Goniosoma calcar (Roewer, 1913) - Brazil - from Laboratory of arthropod behavior and evolution

Copyright © Glauco Machado

Gonyassamiinae Soares & Soares, 1988

(Neotropical – 3 species)

Trichominua roeweri (Soares & Soares, 1954) - Brazil - original.

Copyright © A.B. Kury

Gonyleptinae Sundevall, 1833

(Neotropical – 142 species)

Neosadocus sp. - Brazil - from flickr

Copyright © Techuser [João P. Burini]

Hernandariinae Sørensen, 1884

(Neotropical – 23 species)

  Copyright ©

Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994

(Neotropical – 12 species)

Magnispina neptunus Mendes, 2011 - Brazil - from Laboratory of arthropod behavior and evolution

Copyright © Glauco Machado

Metasarcinae Kury, 1994

(Neotropical – 23 species)

  Copyright ©

Mitobatinae Simon, 1879

(Neotropical – 45 species)

Promitobates ornatus (Mello-Leitão, 1922) - Brazil - from flickr

Copyright © Techuser [João P. Burini]

Pachylinae Sørensen, 1884

(Neotropical – 396 species)

Sadocus sp. - Chile - from flickr

Copyright © BernardoSegura

Pachylospeleinae Šilhavý, 1974

(Neotropical – 1 species)

  Copyright ©

Progonyleptoidellinae Soares & Soares, 1985

(Neotropical – 17 species)

Progonyleptoidellus striatus (Roewer, 1913) - Brazil - from flickr

Copyright © macrophoto [Jan von Bodegraven]

Sodreaninae Soares & Soares, 1985

(Neotropical – 5 species)

Sodreana sodreana Mello-Leitão, 1922 - Brazil - from Laboratory of arthropod behavior and evolution

Copyright © Glauco Machado

Tricommatinae Roewer, 1912

(Neotropical – 53 species)

  Copyright ©

Manaosbiidae Roewer, 1943

(Neotropical – 47 species)

Zygopachylus albomarginis Chamberlin, 1925 - Panama - from flickr

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Stygnidae Simon, 1879

(Neotropical – 98 species)

 

Eutimesius simoni Roewer, 1913 - Ecuador - from flickr - cropped

Copyright © Arthur Anker

Stygnopsidae Sørensen, 1932

(Neotropical – 37 species)

Paramitraceras sp. - Honduras - from flickr

Copyright © asnyder5 [Andrew Snyder]

Phalangodoidea Simon, 1879

Phalangodidae Simon, 1879

(Nearctic, Palearctic, Afrotropical?, Australasian? – 117 species)

Sitalcina sura Briggs, 1968 - USA - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Samooidea Sørensen, 1886

Biantidae Thorell, 1889

(Afrotropical, Indomalayan, Neotropical – 133 species)

a few ill-defined subfamilies

Biantes sp. - Singapore - from flickr

Copyright © [wj]

Samoidae Sørensen, 1886

(Neotropical, Afrotropical, Australasian – 48 species)

Pellobunus insularis Banks, 1905 - Costa Rica - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]

Stygnommatidae Roewer, 1923

(Neotropical – 33 species)

Zygobunus sp. - Costa Rica - from flickr

Copyright © Abel y Ana - Cosa Nostra - [Abel Pérez González]

Zalmoxoidea Sørensen, 1886 Escadabiidae Kury & Pérez, 2003   Copyright ©
Fissiphalliidae Martens, 1988   Copyright ©
Guasiniidae Gonzalez-Sponga, 1997   Copyright ©
Icaleptidae Kury & Pérez, 2002   Copyright ©
Kimulidae Pérez, Kury & Alonso-Zarazaga, 2007   Copyright ©

Zalmoxidae Sørensen, 1886

(Neotropical, Australasian, Indomalayan, Afrotropical – 209 species)

Panopiliops reimoseri (Roewer, 1949) - Costa Rica - from flickr

Copyright © M Hedin [Marshal Hedin]


Page conceived and arranged by AB Kury. Updated 2013.