Checklist of valid genera of Opiliones of the World

by Adriano B. Kury

 

< back to A.B. Kury < back to Arachnology > to Classification of Opiliones

PAGE CURRENTLY BEING RECONCEIVED/REWORKED – PLEASE BE PATIENT

This page may be cited as:

Kury, A.B. (2002 onwards) Checklist of valid genera of Opiliones of the World. Museu Nacional/UFRJ website. Online at: http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/checklaniator.htm

 

DIVERSITY OF THE OPILIONES IN THE WORLD

This is a ranking of all countries of the world with at least one recorded species of Opiliones. Numbers are taken from my forthcoming Catalog of Opiliones of the World, which is an ongoing project, so they are subject to change with more exhaustive parsing (especially for Europe, with many small countries for which small faunistic papers abound, making it very difficult to keep up). Fossils are not included. Subspecies are counted as species. Thanks to Solanlly Carrero, Emanuel Delfosse, Carlos Prieto, Gabriel de los Santos and Anna Šestáková for input.

Names of the countries used here are only for reference and I do not support any claims as to sovereignty and other political issues. No opinion about boundaries of litigious areas is intended and no political slogans are present here, rather the traditional view of the literature is in general followed. The name “Macedonia” is used here for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, just because 20th century taxonomic literature used this name for a region of Yugoslavia. I do not endorse any side of the endless Graeco-Macedonian dispute over the name. Only for the sake of historical-biogeographic-bibliographic continuity, in this work:

  1. Abkhazia and South Ossetia are included in Georgia;
  2. Chechnya is included in Russia;
  3. Crimea is included in Ukraine;
  4. Donetsk People's Republic is included in Ukraine;
  5. French Guiana is treated as an independent country;
  6. Kawthoolei is included in Burma;
  7. Kosovo is included in Serbia;
  8. Luhansk People's Republic is included in Ukraine;
  9. Nagorno-Karabakh is included in Azerbaijan;
  10. Palestine is included in Israel;
  11. Southern Cameroons (Ambazonia) is included in Cameroon;
  12. The areas of Iraq, Lebanon, Syria controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) are not recognized here as ISIL, but as part of these countries;
  13. Tibet is included in China (People's Republic of China);
  14. Taiwan (Republic of China) is NOT included in China (People's Republic of China);
  15. Transnistria is included in Moldova;
  16. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus  is included in Cyprus;
  17. Wa State is included in Burma.

There are currently 23 countries in the world that have 100 or more valid species of Opiliones. Brazil is by far the most diverse of them, with more than 1000 species, which is a combination of natural diversity (comparing, the whole Europe has only 350 species) and concentration of studies. Venezuela surprisingly stands as the runner up, because of the immense descriptive effort by González-Sponga, while neighbor countries such as Colombia occupy much humbler places due to undersampling. African countries are poorly represented, being perhaps the greatest global undersampling. Some very large countries such as Russia (74 species) do not come even close to the top 20; on the other hand, a small country such as Japan has more than 100 species due to the effort of local researchers (mainly Suzuki and Tsurusaki). Local opilionologists (other examples: Lawrence in S.A. and Forster in NZ) therefore play an important role in the diversity assessment of a country.

Estimative of percentage of described species in South America. Based on decades of sampling in South America, always discovering new species, and on the number of undescribed species in collections, one may safely estimate that in the Atlantic forest only 75-85% of the species has been formally described. In the semi-arid diagonal, the diversity is naturally lower, but we may estimate similar numbers. For the Andean and Amazonian areas, the degree of knowledge is less, we may have around 50% or less of the species described. For undersampled areas such as Bolivia, probably less than 30% of the diversity is described. The revisionary papers constantly propose synonymies which almost cancel out the number of new species described.

 

ranking country name Total species Endemic species
1 Brazil 1005 958
2 Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of 393 376
3 Indonesia 304 285
4 United States of America 289 259
5 Mexico 259 225
6 India 238 214
7 Australia 229 228
8 New Zealand 226 226
9 Malaysia 213 195
10 South Africa 204 194
11 Colombia 189 167
12 Ecuador 179 161
13 Peru 178 166
14 Myanmar 170 155
15 Italy 149 57
16 Congo, the Democratic Republic of the (Zaire) 142 109
17 Costa Rica 127 108
18 Nepal 121 114
19 France 120 28
20 Philippines 117 116
21 Japan 117 97
22 Spain 113 59
23 Chile 101 86
24 Tanzania, United Republic of 98 70
25 China 96 74
26 Argentina 89 48
27 Greece 82 41
28 Turkey 78 34
29 Papua New Guinea 77 68
30 Thailand 75 66
31 Russian Federation 74 22
32 Cuba 68 66
33 Croatia 66 21
34 Panama 64 50
35 Slovenia 64 8
36 Austria 64 5
37 Madagascar 57 57
38 Guatemala 57 31
39 Romania 56 14
40 Bosnia and Herzegovina 54 9
41 Cameroon 52 33
42 Germany 50 6
43 Bulgaria 46 16
44 Ukraine 46 8
45 Switzerland 42 2
46 Bolivia, Plurinational State of 41 37
47 Montenegro 41 15
48 Côte d'Ivoire 39 19
49 Slovakia 38 0
50 Suriname 37 26
51 Portugal 37 14
52 Poland 37 1
53 Georgia 36 7
54 Czechia 33 1
55 Hungary 33 1
56 Taiwan, Province of China 32 24
57 Azerbaijan 32 14
58 Guyana 31 27
59 Vietnam 31 27
60 Serbia 31 10
90 Albania 31 1
61 Algeria 30 5
62 Netherlands 30 0
63 Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of 29 18
64 Belize 29 17
65 Equatorial Guinea 28 20
66 Belgium 28 0
67 Kenya 27 12
68 Sri Lanka 26 22
69 Singapore 26 18
70 New Caledonia 24 23
71 Trinidad and Tobago 24 19
72 United Kingdom 24 3
73 Belarus 24 0
74 Ethiopia 23 21
75 Paraguay 23 5
76 Morocco 23 3
77 Uganda 21 7
78 Luxembourg 21 0
79 Angola 20 18
80 Rwanda 20 6
81 Uruguay 20 6
85 Canada 20 0
82 Sweden 20 0
83 El Salvador 19 11
84 Kazakhstan 19 9
86 Denmark 19 0
87 Seychelles 18 18
88 Ireland 18 0
89 Mozambique 17 13
91 Norway 17 1
92 Ghana 16 6
93 French Guiana 15 7
94 Finland 15 0
95 Latvia 15 0
97 Haiti 14 11
98 Iran, Islamic Republic of 14 7
99 Israel 14 4
96 Tunisia 14 0
101 Puerto Rico 12 9
102 Kyrgyzstan 12 5
103 Tajikistan 12 5
104 Togo 12 3
105 Estonia 12 0
100 Dominican Republic 11 9
106 Jamaica 11 9
107 Sao Tome and Principe 11 9
108 Korea, Republic of [South] 11 7
109 Namibia 11 7
110 Mongolia 11 2
111 Honduras 9 8
112 Brunei Darussalam 9 6
113 Congo 9 4
114 Syrian Arab Republic 9 4
115 Gabon 8 3
116 Turkmenistan 8 3
117 Libya 8 2
118 Uzbekistan 8 2
119 Burundi 8 0
120 Fiji 7 6
121 Pakistan 7 4
122 Guinea 7 3
123 Guinea-Bissau 7 3
124 Egypt 7 2
125 Cyprus 7 1
126 Lithuania 7 0
127 Martinique 6 6
128 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of [North] 6 2
129 Lebanon 6 2
130 Armenia 6 1
131 Afghanistan 6 0
132 Zimbabwe 6 0
133 Mauritius 5 5
134 Réunion 5 4
135 Micronesia, Federated States of 5 3
136 Virgin Islands, U.S. 5 3
137 Bangladesh 5 2
138 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4 4
139 Samoa 4 4
140 Solomon Islands 4 4
141 Bhutan 4 3
142 Cambodia 4 2
143 Chad 4 2
144 Lesotho 4 2
145 Sierra Leone 4 2
146 Iraq 4 1
147 Andorra 4 0
148 Bahamas 3 3
149 Dominica 3 3
150 Grenada 3 3
151 Lao People's Democratic Republic 3 2
152 Senegal 3 2
153 Somalia 3 2
154 Nigeria 3 1
155 Iceland 3 0
156 Jordan 3 0
157 Malta 3 0
158 Antigua and Barbuda 2 2
159 Comoros 2 2
160 Curaçao 2 2
161 Yemen 2 2
162 Guadeloupe 2 1
163 Nicaragua 2 0
164 Central African Republic 1 1
165 French Southern Territories 1 1
166 Malawi 1 1
167 Moldova, Republic of 1 1
168 Montserrat 1 1
169 Palau 1 1
170 Vanuatu 1 1
171 Botswana 1 0
172 Eritrea 1 0
173 Liberia 1 0
174 Marshall Islands 1 0
175 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1 0
176 Saudi Arabia 1 0
177 Sudan 1 0
178 Swaziland 1 0
179 Zambia 1 0

 

 

GENERA RECENTLY DESCRIBED IN OPILIONES: 
2017: Kichua Pinto-da-Rocha & Bragagnolo 2017
2016: Jarmilana Cruz-López et al., 2016; Sinostoma Martens, 2016
2015: Crettaros Cruz-López & Francke, 2015; Gasterapophus Zhang, Lian & Zhang, 2015; Gonycranaus Bragagnolo et al., 2015; Huasteca Cruz-López & Francke, 2015; Jabbastygnus Kury & Villarreal, 2015; Llaguenia Kury & Pérez-González, 2015; Mictlana Cruz-López & Francke, 2015
2014: Taito Kury & Barros, 2014
2013: Mangatangi Taylor, 2013
2012: Giribetia Clouse, 2012; Imeri Pinto-da-Rocha & Tourinho, 2012; Jime Pinto-da-Rocha & Tourinho, 2012; Milipurcellia Karaman, 2012; †Piankhi Dunlop et al., 2012; Saccarella Schönhofer & Martens, 2012, Zannicranaus Kury, 2012.
2011: Forsteropsalis Taylor, 2011, Hypomegalopsalis Taylor, 2011, Lenkoraniella Snegovaya & Staręga, 2011, † Macrogyion Garwood et. al., 2011, Magnispina Mendes, 2011, Petrobunus Sharma & Giribet, 2011, Shearogovea Giribet, 2011, Tercentenarium Taylor, 2011.
2010: Ayenea Santos & Prieto, 2010, Canga DaSilva et al., 2010, Mbinia Santos & Prieto, 2010, Montalenia Santos & Prieto, 2010, Niefanga Santos & Prieto, 2010, Pyatan DaSilva & Gnaspini, 2010, Starengovia Snegovaya, 2010, † Stephanobunus Dunlop & Mammitzsch, 2010.
2009: Agathocranaus Orrico & Kury, 2009; Australiscutum Taylor, 2009; †Daohugopilio Huang et al., 2009; †Mesobunus Huang et al., 2009; Neopantopsalis Taylor & Hunt, 2009; Ricstygnus Kury, 2009; Taurolaena  Snegovaya & Staręga, 2009.
2008: Camerobunus Staręga & Snegovaya, 2008; Enigmina Ubick & Briggs, 2008; Megacina Ubick & Briggs, 2008; Microcinella Ubick & Briggs, 2008; Pamiropilio Staręga & Snegovaya, 2008; Redikorcevia Snegovaya & Staręga, 2008; Templar Taylor, 2008; Tularina Ubick & Briggs, 2008
2007: Aoraki Boyer & Giribet, 2007; Meghalaya Giribet et al., 2007

 

Most diverse genera in Opiliones (with number of species):
These are the 30 genera of Phalangida which have more than 30 species. Together they sum 1900 species, that is 30% of the total diversity of Opiliones (6445 spp). 30 genera out of 1630 makes less than 2%, marking the extreme asymmetry of the taxonomic recognition of diversity. More impressively, the 4 top-diverse genera (0.2%), which have above 100 species each, sum up 643 species, that is 10% of the total Opiliones. Of the 30 genera listed here, 7 are Gagrellinae and 5 Cosmetidae.

Gagrella

 238

Psathyropus

 42

Cynorta

 154

Metabiantes

 41

Leiobunum

 132

Sabacon

 40

Prionostemma

 119

Ischyropsalis

 39

Paecilaema

 93

Opilio

 39

Geaya

 84

Eusarcus

 36

Nemastoma

 84

Trogulus*  35

Discocyrtus

 76

Phareicranaus

 35

Zaleptus

 72

Dentobunus

 34

Gagrellula

 67

Eucynorta

 34

Nuncia

 61

Avima

 33

Gnomulus

 54

Cyphophthalmus  32

Rhampsinitus

 47

Erginulus

 32

Nelima

 45

Tithaeus

 32

Zalmoxis

 45

Cynortula

 31

* Thanks to Axel Schönhofer for the update!

ETYMOLOGY OF GENERIC NAMES IN OPILIONES
It is important to investigate the etymology of generic names to ascertain the gender and consequently the grammatical inflection of the specific name. It is an arduous task, because in most cases it is not acknowledged and the reviewer is obliged to investigate beneath the mysterious thoughts of long dead authors.
CATEGORY EXAMPLES
By far the commonest generic names in Opiliones are those derived from place names, sometimes without change, sometimes unrecognizable, horribly mutilated, or embroidered with strange prefixes or suffixes. Amazonesia, Anjolus, Bogania, Brotasus, Bukowina, Cajamarca, Cobania, Dongmoa, Irnia, Itatiaya, Krusa, Rilaena, Samoa, Santobius, Tampiconus.
A subcategory of these are the names formed by a place/demonymic name plus a pre-existing genus Bactrophalangium, Brasiliogovea, Brasiloctis, Calicina, Caribbiantes, Costabrimma, Graecophalangium, Himalzaleptus, Iberosiro, Indosidama, Ivobiantes, Nippononychus, Tasmanonuncia.
Classic names formed by a combination of two Greek/Latin roots were also widely favored. Astrobunus, Calathocratus, Cladonychium, Dendrolasma, Dolichoscelis, Fissiphallius, Globipes, Holozoster, Ischyropsalis, Leiobunum, Mitopus, Oligolophus, Podoctis, Scotolemon, Sterrhosoma, Stylocellus.
Unfortunately, there is a great fraction of harvestmen genera names that are unimaginative variations around an original nucleus: Acrogonyleptes, Gonyleptellus, Metagonyleptoides, Neogonyleptes, Paragonyleptes, Progonyleptes, Progonyleptoidellus, Progonyleptoides.
A variation of this are the names with the same ending: Austromontia, Ceratomontia, Graemontia, Paramontia, Planimontia.
Homage to people played also an important role in the choice of naming. Names of writers/friends/relatives/naturalists/explorers: Absolonia, Bourguyia, Buresiolla, Camarana, Caramaschia, Geaya, Hindreus, Jarmilana, Jim, Rivetinus, Roquettea, Ruschia, Sarasinia.
Sometimes, names of people are merged with varied roots and suffixes to create strange hybrids: Lanesoares, Lizamontia, Martensolasma, Paulianyx, Ramblinus, Ricstygnus, Roewerania, Roeweritta, Shearogovea.
Names of known/unknown women: Carlotta, Cristina, Lola, Marthana, Yuria.
Names of arachnologists: Banksula, Crosbyella, Giupponia, Hadziana, Lomanius, Purcellia.
Names of minor kings of exquisite ancient reigns Ariaeus, Cleombrotus, Cranaus, Erginus, Minua, Sadocus.
A whole section of Egyptian pharaohs: Amasis, Cheops, Rhampsinitus, Sabacon, Sesostris, Taracus.
Spirits, demons, Gods and Goddesses of minor religions are also present: Huitaca, Kaapora, Marwe, Trojanella, Vibone, Zalmoxis.
Minor biblical figures of from Greek mythology: Chilon, Dino, Gryne, Gyas, Halitherses, Lacinius, Mermerus, Pettalus, Syleus, Zachaeus.
Names of indigenous people: Caddo, Huasteca, Icaleptes, Incasarcus, Kainganga, Kichua, Mwenga, Zuma.
Some unusual beautiful names refer to ancient names of places or cultural references of people: Amhara, Bundelkhandia, Hinzuanius, Ibalonius, Kapichaba, Maiorerus, Mictlana, Travunia.
Names in non-classical languages: Ballarra, Crettaros, Mizozatus, Munequita, Pyatan, Taito, Templar.
Also neologisms using a composition of two or more roots in indigenous languages in the same way as Greek or Latin: Abaetetuba, Iandumoema.
Characters of literature/movies are also present: Jabbastygnus, Pinocchio, Sandokan, Timoleon, Voriax.
Favorite dishes: Pyza.
Names referring to microhabitat/biology: Bodunius, Cryptogeobius, Geraeocormobius.
Jubilee or anniversary celebration names: Tercentenarium.
Names referring to mode of capture: Berlesecaptus.
Names used as a derogatory to political enemies: Lentsujo.
Names of unknown origin, most likely modern languages, which may be puns or jokes: Xulapona.

 

LIST OF THE GENERA OF THE ORDER OPILIONES IN THE WORLD
Cyphophthalmi Simon, 1879 
      Incertae sedis
    Neogoveidae Shear, 1980
    Ogoveidae Shear, 1980
    Pettalidae Shear, 1980
    Sironidae Simon, 1879
    Stylocellidae Hansen and Sørensen, 1904
    Troglosironidae Shear, 1993
Eupnoi Hansen & Sørensen, 1904 
    Caddoidea Banks, 1892 
    Caddidae Banks, 1892 
      Acropsopilioninae Roewer, 1923
      Caddinae Banks, 1892
  Phalangioidea Latreille, 1802 
    Genera incertae sedis – family uncertain
    †Kustarachnidae Petrunkevitch, 1949
    Metopilio genus group
    Neopilionidae Lawrence, 1931 
      Ballarrinae Hunt & Cokendolpher, 1991
      Enantiobuninae Mello-Leitão, 1931
      Neopilioninae Lawrence, 1931
    Phalangiidae Latreille, 1802
      Dicranopalpus genus group Crawford, 1992
      Oligolophinae Banks, 1893
      Opilioninae C.L.Koch, 1839
      Phalangiinae Latreille, 1802
      Platybuninae Staręga, 1976
    Protolophidae Banks, 1893
    Sclerosomatidae Simon, 1879
      Gagrellinae Thorell, 1889
      Gyinae Šilhavý, 1946
      Leiobuninae Banks, 1893
      Sclerosomatinae Simon, 1879
Dyspnoi Hansen & Sørensen, 1904
     << back to top Ischyropsalidoidea Simon, 1879
    Ceratolasmatidae Shear, 1986
    Ischyropsalididae Simon, 1879
    Sabaconidae Dresco, 1970
<< back to top Troguloidea Sundevall, 1833
    Dicranolasmatidae Simon, 1879
    Nemastomatidae Simon, 1872 
      Nemastomatinae Simon, 1872
      Ortholasmatinae Shear & Gruber, 1983
    †Nemastomoididae Petrunkevitch, 1955
    Nipponopsalididae Martens, 1976
    Trogulidae Sundevall, 1833
Laniatores Thorell, 1876 
                        << back to top Travunioidea Absolon & Kratochvíl, 1932
    Nippononychidae Suzuki, 1975
    Paranonychidae Briggs, 1971 
      Paranonychinae Briggs, 1971
      Sclerobuninae Dumitrescu, 1976
    Travuniidae Absolon & Kratochvíl, 1932 
      Briggsinae Özdikmen & Demir 2008
      Cladonychiinae Hadži, 1935
      Travuniinae Absolon & Kratochvíl, 1932
<< back to top Triaenonychoidea Sørensen, 1886  
    Synthetonychiidae Forster, 1954
    Triaenonychidae Sørensen, 1886 
      Triaenonychidae incertae sedis (subfamily uncertain)
      Adaeinae Pocock, 1903
      Soerensenellinae Forster, 1954
      Triaenobuninae Pocock, 1903
      Triaenonychinae Sørensen, 1886
Grassatores Kury, 2002  
    Grassatores incertae sedis (family uncertain)
<< back to top Assamioidea Sørensen, 1884
    Assamiidae Sørensen, 1884  
      Aburistinae Roewer, 1935
      Acacinae Roewer, 1935
      Assamiinae Sørensen, 1884
      Dampetrinae Sørensen, 1886
      Erecinae Roewer, 1935
      Eupodaucheniinae Roewer, 1935
      Hypoxestinae Roewer, 1935
      Irumuinae Kauri, 1985
      Maruinae Roewer, 1935
      Polycoryphinae Roewer, 1935
      Selencinae Roewer, 1935
      Sidaminae Roewer, 1935
    Pyramidopidae Sharma et al., 2011
    Stygnopsidae Sørensen, 1932
    Trionyxellidae Roewer, 1912
      Mysoreinae Roewer, 1935
      Opcochininae Roewer, 1935
      Pungoicinae Roewer, 1935
      Trionyxellinae Roewer, 1912
  Epedanoidea Sørensen, 1886
    Epedanidae Sørensen, 1886
      Epedanidae incertae sedis
      Acrobuninae Roewer, 1912
      Dibuninae Roewer, 1912
      Epedaninae Sørensen, 1886
      Sarasinicinae Roewer, 1923
    Petrobunidae Sharma & Giribet, 2011
    Podoctidae Roewer, 1912
      Erecananinae Roewer, 1912
      Ibaloniinae Roewer, 1912
      Podoctinae Roewer, 1912
    Sandokanidae Özdikmen & Kury, 2007
    Tithaeidae Sharma & Giribet, 2011
<< back to top Gonyleptoidea Sundevall, 1833
    Agoristenidae Šilhavý, 1973
      Agoristeninae Šilhavý, 1973
      Leiosteninae Šilhavý, 1973
      Zamorinae Kury, 1997
    Cosmetidae Koch, 1839
      Cosmetinae Koch, 1839
      Discosomaticinae Roewer, 1923
    Cranaidae Roewer, 1913
      Cranainae Roewer, 1913
      Heterocranainae Roewer, 1913
      Prostygninae Roewer, 1913
      Stygnicranainae Roewer, 1913
    Gonyleptidae Sundevall, 1833
      Gonyleptidae incertae sedis
      Ampycinae Kury, 2003
      Bourguyiinae Mello-Leitão, 1923
      Caelopyginae Sørensen, 1884
      Cobaniinae Kury, 1994
      Goniosomatinae Mello-Leitão, 1935
      Gonyassamiinae Soares & Soares, 1988
      Gonyleptinae Sundevall, 1833
      Hernandariinae Sørensen, 1884
      Heteropachylinae Kury, 1994
      Metasarcinae Kury, 1994
      Mitobatinae Simon, 1879
      Pachylinae Sørensen, 1884
      Pachylospeleinae Šilhavý, 1974
      Progonyleptoidellinae Soares & Soares, 1985
      Sodreaninae Soares & Soares, 1985
      Tricommatinae Roewer, 1912
    Manaosbiidae Roewer, 1943
    Stygnidae Simon, 1879 
      Heterostygninae Roewer, 1913
      Nomoclastinae Roewer, 1943
      Stygninae Simon, 1879
<< back to top Phalangodoidea Simon, 1879
    Phalangodidae Simon, 1879
<< back to top Samooidea Sørensen, 1886 
    Biantidae Thorell, 1889
      Biantinae Thorell, 1889
      Lacurbsinae Lawrence, 1959
      Stenostygninae Roewer, 1913
      Zairebiantinae Kauri, 1985
    Samoidae Sørensen, 1886
    Stygnommatidae Roewer, 1923 
<< back to top  Zalmoxoidea Sørensen, 1886 
    Escadabiidae Kury & Pérez, 2003
    Fissiphalliidae Martens, 1988 
    Guasiniidae González-Sponga, 1997 
    Icaleptidae Kury & Pérez, 2002 
    Kimulidae Pérez, Kury & Alonso-Zarazaga, 2007
    Zalmoxidae Sørensen, 1886 


The junior synonyms are not all here, but they will be gradually added whenever my short time allows. Thanks to my colleagues (Dr Gonzalo Giribet, Boston; Dr Jürgen Grüber, Vienna; Dr. A. Tourinho-Davis, Manaus) for feedback / comments / corrections / nitpicking.