Antracologia

Disciplina

Antracologia

Código

MNA 787

Professor Responsável

Rita Scheel-Ybert

Ementa

Esta disciplina visa apresentar aos alunos as bases para a análise e interpretação de macro-vestígios botânicos carbonizados provenientes de sítios arqueológicos, capacitando-os à correta identificação dos vestígios, à sua contextualização em relação a aspectos funcionais e culturais e à interpretação de seu significado paleoambiental e paleoetnobotânico.

Sumário

• Introdução à Antracologia: histórico da disciplina, diferentes abordagens;
• Princípios teóricos e metodológicos;
• Anatomia da madeira e identificação taxonômica;
• Dendrologia e aspectos morfológicos do lenho;
• Representatividade ecológica e interpretação arqueológica de vestígios carbonizados;
• Disponibilidade, escolha e uso da madeira em contextos diversos;
• Paisagem e reconstituição paleoambiental.

Bibliografia

PARTE 1

01 – Apresentação do curso. Introdução à Antracologia.
02 – TEMA 1 - Introdução à disciplina:
- FIGUEIRAL, I. & MOSBRUGGER, V. 2000. A review of charcoal analysis as a tool for assessing Quaternary and Tertiary environments: achievements and limits. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164: 397–407

- MARGUERIE, D. & HUNOT, J.-Y. 2007. Charcoal analysis and dendrology: data from archaeological sites in north-western France. Journal of Archaeological Science 34 : 1417-1433
- THÉRY-PARISOT, I.; CHABAL, L. & CHRZAVZEZ, J. 2010. Anthracology and taphonomy, from wood gathering to charcoal analysis. A review of the taphonomic processes modifying charcoal assemblages, in archaeological contexts. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 291: 142–153

03 – TEMA 2 -Representatividade ecológica e interpretação arqueológica de vestígios carbonizados:

- SMART, T.L. & HOFFMAN, E.S. 1988. Environmental interpretation of archaeological charcoal. In : Hastorf, C.A. & Popper, V.S. Current Paleoethnobotany: Analytical methods and cultural interpretation of archaeological plant remains. Chicago/London, The University of Chicago Press. pp. 167-205.
- ASOUTI, E. 2003. Woodland vegetation and fuel exploitation at the prehistoric campsite of Pinarbasi, south-central Anatolia, Turkey: the evidence from the wood charcoal macro-remains. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 1185–1201
- DI PIAZZA, A. 1998. Archaeobotanical investigations of an earth oven in Kiribati, Gilbert Islands. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 7: 149-154.

Bibliografia complementar:

- CHABAL, L. 1992. La réprésentativité paléo-écologique des charbons archéologiques issus du bois de feu. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, Actual. bot., 139 (2/3/4) : 213--236.
- EMERY-BARBIER, A. & THIÉBAULT, S. 2005. Preliminary conclusions on the Late Glacial vegetation in south-west Anatolia (Turkey): the complementary nature of palynological and anthracological approaches. Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 1232-1251
- NELLE, O. ; DREIBRODT, S. & DANNATH, Y. 2010. Combining pollen and charcoal: evaluating Holocene vegetation composition and dynamics. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2126-2135
- BADAL, E.; FIGUEIRAL, I.; HEINZ, C. & VERNET, J.-L. 1989. Charbons de bois archéologiques méditerranéens : de la fouille à l’interprétation. Acta Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica 7 : 7-22.
- PERNAUD, J.-M. 1992. L’interprétation paléoécologique des charbons concentrés dans des fosses dépotoirs protohistoriques du Carroussel (Louvre, Paris). Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, Actual. bot., 139 (2/3/4) : 329-341.
- MICKSICEK, C.H. 1987. Formation processes of the archaeobotanical record. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 10 : 211-247. -15
- WESTERN, C. 1963. Wood and charcoal in archaeology. In : Brothwell, D. & Higgs, E. Science in Archaeology. A comprehensive survey of progress and research. Thames and Hudson. pp. 150162.

04 – TEMA 3 - Disponibilidade, escolha e uso da madeira em contextos diversos:
- THÉRY-PARISOT, I. 2002. Gathering of firewood during the Palaeolithic. In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 243-249.
- DILLON, M. ; NEWMAN, C. ; MOLLOY, K. & O’CONNELL, M. 2008. Environment and ritual in a late Iron Age context : an example from Raffin Fort, Co. Meath, Ireland. In: FIORENTINO, G. & MAGRI, D. (eds.). Charcoals from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1807 : 75-92.
- SADORI, L.; SUSANNA, F. & RESTELLI, F.B. 2008. Collapsed beams and wooden remains from a 3200 BC temple and palace at Arslantepe (Malatya, Turkey). In: FIORENTINO, G. & MAGRI, D. (eds.). Charcoals from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1807 : 237-250.

05 – TEMA 3 - Disponibilidade, escolha e uso da madeira em contextos diversos:

- TABUTI, J.R.S.; DHILLION, S.S. &; LYE, K.A. 2003. Firewood use in Bulamogi County, Uganda: species selection, harvesting and consumption patterns. Biomass and Bioenergy 25: 581-596
- MARSTON, J.M. 2009. Modeling wood acquisition strategies from archaeological charcoal remains. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 2192–2200
- GELABERT, L.P.; ASOUTI, E.& MARTI, E.A. 2011. The ethnoarchaeology of firewood management in the Fang villages of Equatorial Guinea, central Africa: Implications for the interpretation of wood fuel remains from archaeological sites. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 30: 375–384
Bibliografia complementar:
- GUIOT, H. 2002. "They plant what they will burn": the impact of traditional burning on the lanscapes of Wallis and Futuna (western Polynesia) – proposals for an eehnoarchaeological and palaeoenvironmental study. In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 251-254.
- HEIZER, R.F. 1963. Domestic fuel in primitive society. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 93: 186-194. - 15
- THIÉBAULT, S. 1995. Functioning of hearths and ancient vegetation at the Balme de Thuy (Haute-Savoie, France). The charcoal contribution. Quaternaria Nova 5: 129-170.

06 – TEMA 6 - Reconstituição paleoambiental e paisagem:

- VERNET, J.-L. 1990. Man and vegetation in the Mediterranean area during the last 20,000 years. In : Castri, F. di ; Hansen, A.J. & Debussche, M. (eds.) Biological invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 161-168.
- WESTERN, C. 1971. The ecological interpretation of ancient charcoals from Jericho. Levant 3 : 31-40.
- HEINZ, C. & THIÉBAULT, S. 1998. Characterization and palaeoecological significance of archaeological charcoal assemblages during late and post-glacial phases in Southern France. Quaternary Research 50: 56–68.

07 – TEMA 6 - Reconstituição paleoambiental e paisagem:
- KAAL, J.; MARCO, Y.C.; ASOUTI, E.; SEIJO, M.M.; CORTIZAS, A.M.; CASÁIS, M.C. & BOADO, F.C. 2011. Long-term deforestation in NW Spain: linking the Holocene fire history to vegetation change and human activities. Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 161-175
- NEUMANN, K. 1998. Remains of woody plants from Saouga, a medieval west African village. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 7: 57-77.
- NEUMANN, K. 1989. Holocene vegetation of the Eastern Sahara : charcoal from prehistoric sites. The African Archaeological Review 7 : 97-116.
- NEWTON, C. 2005. Upper Egypt: vegetation at the beginning of the third millennium BC inferred from charcoal analysis at Adaïma and Elkab. Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 355–367
Bibliografia complementar:

- HEINZ, C. 1991. Upper Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation in the south of France and Andorra. Adaptations and first ruptures: New charcoal analysis data. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 69: 299-324.

- ADRIANO-MORA, C.C. & DE TAPIA E.M. 2008. Trees and shrubs: the use of wood in prehispanic Teotihuacan. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2927–2936
- DECKERS, K. & PESSIN, H. 2010. Vegetation development in the Middle Euphrates and Upper Jazirah (Syria/Turkey) during the Bronze Age. Quaternary Research 74: 216–226
- HÖHN, A. 2002. Vegetation changes in the Sahel of Burkina Faso (West Africa): analysis of charcoal from the Iron Age sites Oursi and Oursi-village. In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 133-139.
- TENGBERG, M. 2002. Vegetation history and wood exploitation in the Oman peninsula from the Bronze age to the Classical period. In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 151-157.
- UZQUIANO, P. 2008. Domestic fires and vegetation cover among Neanderthalians and anatomically modern human groups (>53-30 kyr BP) in the Cantabrian region (Cantabria, Northern Spain). In: FIORENTINO, G. & MAGRI, D. (eds.). Charcoals from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1807 : 273-285.
- WILLCOX, G.H. 1999. Charcoal analysis and Holocene vegetation history in Southern Syria. Quaternary Science Reviews 18:711-716

08 – TEMA 7 - Dendrologia e arqueologia:

- NELLE, O. 2002. Charcoal burning remains and forest stand structure: examples from the Black Forest (south-west Germany) and the Bavarian Forest (south-east Germany). In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 201-207.
- LUDEMANN, T. 2010. Past fuel wood exploitation and natural forest vegetation in the Black Forest, the Vosges and neighbouring regions in western Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 291: 154–165
- FABRE, L. & AUFFRAY, J.-C. 2002. An anthracological method for the study of charcoal kilns in relation to historical foresty management. In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 193-199.
Bibliografia complementar:
- LUDEMANN, T. 2002. Anthacology and forest sites : the contribution of charcoal analysis to our knowledge of natural forest vegetation in south-west Germany. In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 209-217.
- LUDEMANN, T. 2008. Experimental charcoal-burning with special regard to anthracological wood diameter analysis. In: FIORENTINO, G. & MAGRI, D. (eds.). Charcoals from the past: cultural and palaeoenvironmental implications. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1807 : 148-157.
- MARGUERIE, D. 2002. Fuel from protohistorical and historical kilns in north-western France. In: THIÉBAULT, S. (ed.). Charcoal analysis: methodological approaches, palaeoecological results and wood uses. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1063: 187-191.

09 – TEMA 4 - Metodologia de campo (modo de depósito dos carvões, coleta, flotação):
- CHABAL, L. 1997. Forêts et sociétés en Languedoc (Néolithique final, Antiquité tardive): L'anthracologie, méthode et paléoécologie. Documents d'Archéologie Française 63: 1-188.

- SCHEEL-YBERT, R. 2004. Teoria e métodos em antracologia. 1. Considerações teóricas e perspectivas. Arquivos do Museu Nacional 62(1): 3-14.
- SCHEEL-YBERT, R.; KLÖKLER, D.; GASPAR, M.D. & FIGUTI, L. 2006.

Proposta de amostragem padronizada para macrovestígios bioarqueológicos: antracologia, arqueobotânica, zooarqueologia. Revista do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia 15-16: 139-163.
- SCHEEL-YBERT, R. 1999.Considerações sobre o método de datação pelo carbono-14 e alguns comentários sobre a datação de sambaquis. Revista do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, São Paulo, 9: 297-301.
- BADAL GARCIA, E. 1992. L’anthracologie préhistorique : à propos de certains problèmes méthodologiques. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, Actual. bot., 139 (2/3/4) : 167-189.
- BADAL GARCIA, E. & HEINZ, C. 1991. Méthodes utilisées en anthracologie pour l’étude de sites préhistoriques. In : Waldren, W.H. ; Ensenyat, J.A. & Kennard, R.C. (eds.). IInd Deya International Conference of Prehistory. Recent developments in western Mediterranean prehistory : Archaeological techniques, technology and theory 1 : 17- 47.

10 – TEMA 5 - Metodologia de laboratório (análise e interpretação do espectro antracológico):
- SCHEEL-YBERT, R. 2004.Teoria e métodos em antracologia. 2. Técnicas de campo e de laboratório. Arquivos do Museu Nacional 62(4): 343-356.
- POPPER, V.S. 1988. Selecting quantitative measurements in paleoethnobotany. In: Hastorf, C.A. & Popper, V.S. Current Paleoethnobotany: Analytical methods and cultural interpretation of archaeological plant remains. Chicago/London, The University of Chicago Press. pp. 53-71.
- MILLER, N.F. 1988. Ratios in paleoethnobotanical analysis. In : Hastorf, C.A. & Popper, V.S. Current Paleoethnobotany : Analytical methods and cultural interpretation of archaeological plant remains. Chicago/London, The University of Chicago Press. pp. 72-85.
Bibliografia complementar:
- MOSKAL-DEL HOYO, M.; WACHOWIAK, M. & BLANCHETTE, R.A. 2010. Preservation of fungi in archaeological charcoal. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2106-2116
- SCHEEL-YBERT, R.; CARVALHO, M.A.; MOURA, R.P.O.; GONÇALVES, T.A.P.; SCHEEL, M. & YBERT, J.-P. 2006. Coleções de referência e bancos de dados de estruturas vegetais: subsídios para estudos paleoecológicos e paleoetnobotânicos. Arquivos do Museu Nacional 64(3): 255-266.
- VERNET, J.-L. ; BAZILE, E. & EVIN, J. 1979. Coordination des analyses anthracologiques et des datations absolues sur charbon de bois. Bulletin de la Société de Préhistoire de France 76 (3) : 76-79.

PARTE 2

01 - Anatomia do lenho e do carvão: teoria- Introdução à Anatomia do lenho e do carvão; prática- quebra e observação de carvões
02 – Anatomia do lenho e do carvão: teoria- Angiospermas: vasos; prática- identificação dos constituintes celulares no carvão
03 – Anatomia do lenho e do carvão: teoria- Angiospermas: parênquima, fibras e variantes cambiais; prática- identificação dos constituintes celulares no carvão
04 – Anatomia do lenho e do carvão: teoria- Angiospermas: raios, canais e inclusões minerais; prática- caracterização anatômica de carvões, uso de programas de identificação
05 – Anatomia do lenho e do carvão: teoria- Gimnospermas; Modificações estruturais do lenho carbonizado; Dendrologia; prática- Gimnospermas/dendrometria